Your Guide to Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis These categories can be qualitative or quantitative values. 3 2 Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics are often used to describe variables. Descriptive statis-tics are performed by analyzing one variable at a time (univariate analysis). All researchers perform these descriptive statistics before beginning any type of data analysis.

## Qualitative research Wikipedia

Data Types Mayo Clinic. qualitative empirical research. In this article, I first offer an overview of recent empirical research done by practical theologians and postgraduate students at the NWU. Then I focus on coding as an important part of data analysis during qualitative empirical research. I also present different approaches to data analysis in qualitative, I will discuss some of the different types of qualitative data analysis before focusing on computer pro-grams for qualitative data analysis; you will see that these increasingly popular programs are blurring the distinctions between quantitative and qualitative approaches to textual analysis. 22 Features of Qualitative Data Analysis The distinctive features of qualitative data collection.

These categories can be qualitative or quantitative values. 3 2 Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics are often used to describe variables. Descriptive statis-tics are performed by analyzing one variable at a time (univariate analysis). All researchers perform these descriptive statistics before beginning any type of data analysis. Quantitative analysis is a mathematical and statistical method of studying behavior and predicting certain outcomes that investors use in their decision-making process. By using financial research and analysis, quantitative analysis seeks to assess every investment opportunity, as well as try to estimate a change in macroeconomic value.

Types of Research: There are varieties of ways through which we may classify it into different categories. (A) On the basis of nature of information: On the basis of nature of information we can classify the research into two types; (i) Qualitative Research: When information is in the form of qualitative data. Unquestionably, data analysis is the most complex and mysteriвЂє ous of all of the phases of a qualitative project, and the one that receives the least thoughtful discussion in the literature.

15 Methods of Data Analysis in Qualitative Research Compiled by Donald Ratcliff 1. Typology - a classification system, taken from patterns, themes, or other kinds of groups of data. (Patton pp. 393,398) John Lofland & Lyn Lofland Ideally, categories should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive if вЂ¦ Data gathering in qualitative research . Van MaanenвЂ™s view of what research is . DonвЂ™t be a bull in a china shop вЂ“ prefigure your data collection . Analysis of qualitative data begins before it is collected. It starts with: 1. Framing and posing a research question or problem 2. Knowing the theoretical positions available on the topic Finding the blind spots, gaps and omissions in

Unquestionably, data analysis is the most complex and mysteriвЂє ous of all of the phases of a qualitative project, and the one that receives the least thoughtful discussion in the literature. Unquestionably, data analysis is the most complex and mysteriвЂє ous of all of the phases of a qualitative project, and the one that receives the least thoughtful discussion in the literature.

can be given to either data type or they can be considered equally. Allows researchers to expand an understanding from one method to another or converge or confirm findings. Researcher is draw on breadth of generalization offered by quantitative research with depth of detailed understanding offered by qualitative research. Form of Data Collected Qualitative data such as open- ended responses, interviews, participant observations, field notes, & reflections. Quantitative data based on precise measurements using structured & validated data-collection instruments. Type of Data Analysis Identify patterns, features, themes. Identify statistical relationships.

Data Analysis as Data Reduction Management goal is to make large amount of data manageable Analysis goals: Search for commonalities, which lead to categories (know as codes or themes) Search for contrasts/comparisons There is Physical reduction of data (putting names on excerpts as if you are creating labels in a filing 15 Methods of Data Analysis in Qualitative Research Compiled by Donald Ratcliff 1. Typology - a classification system, taken from patterns, themes, or other kinds of groups of data. (Patton pp. 393,398) John Lofland & Lyn Lofland Ideally, categories should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive if вЂ¦

Form of Data Collected Qualitative data such as open- ended responses, interviews, participant observations, field notes, & reflections. Quantitative data based on precise measurements using structured & validated data-collection instruments. Type of Data Analysis Identify patterns, features, themes. Identify statistical relationships. Data gathering in qualitative research . Van MaanenвЂ™s view of what research is . DonвЂ™t be a bull in a china shop вЂ“ prefigure your data collection . Analysis of qualitative data begins before it is collected. It starts with: 1. Framing and posing a research question or problem 2. Knowing the theoretical positions available on the topic Finding the blind spots, gaps and omissions in

15 Methods of Data Analysis in Qualitative Research Compiled by Donald Ratcliff 1. Typology - a classification system, taken from patterns, themes, or other kinds of groups of data. (Patton pp. 393,398) John Lofland & Lyn Lofland Ideally, categories should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive if вЂ¦ Qualitative research methods: Qualitative data analysis - Codes вЂўвЂњA code in qualitative inquiry is a word or a short phrase that symbolically assigns a summative, salient, essence-capturing, and/or evocative attribute for a portion of language-based or visual data.вЂќ (SaldaГ±a, 2016) вЂўCoding is a process of organizing data into

15 Methods of Data Analysis in Qualitative Research Compiled by Donald Ratcliff 1. Typology - a classification system, taken from patterns, themes, or other kinds of groups of data. (Patton pp. 393,398) John Lofland & Lyn Lofland Ideally, categories should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive if вЂ¦ 05/10/2019В В· Different types of quantitative analysis tools include graphs, linear regressions and hypothesis testing. These tools provide analysts with statistical methods of organizing and examining data. These tools are useful for analyzing survey results, historical data or financial numbers. They can also be used for forecasting or determining the

dichotomous positioning of qualitative research with respect to its quantitative coun - terpart. It allows for the inclusion of many different kinds of data collection and analysis techniques, as well as the diversity of theoretical and epistemological frame-works that are associated with qualitative research. Qualitative Data Types Types of Research: There are varieties of ways through which we may classify it into different categories. (A) On the basis of nature of information: On the basis of nature of information we can classify the research into two types; (i) Qualitative Research: When information is in the form of qualitative data.

6+ Quantitative Analysis Examples PDF Examples. This chapter introduces quantitative research methods in applied linguistics research, and discusses issues involved in quantitative data analysis, methodological assumptions underlying, This chapter introduces quantitative research methods in applied linguistics research, and discusses issues involved in quantitative data analysis, methodological assumptions underlying.

### Qualitative Data Analysis sagepub.com

Data analysis in research Why data types of data data. Qualitative Research Methods: A Data CollectorвЂ™s Field Guide Module 1 Qualitative Research Methods Overview FAMILY HEALTH INTERNATIONAL OVERVIEW. Qualitative Research Methods Overview T his module introduces the fundamental elements of a qualitative approach to research, to help you understand and become proficient in the qualitative methods discussed in subse-quent modules. We вЂ¦, perspective of qualitative research. 3. Data collection. is one of the most thoroughly established aspects of quantita-tive research. While these strategies may emerge during a qualitative study, they must be well developed prior to beginning a quantitative research study. Furthermore, in.

Your Guide to Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis. can be given to either data type or they can be considered equally. Allows researchers to expand an understanding from one method to another or converge or confirm findings. Researcher is draw on breadth of generalization offered by quantitative research with depth of detailed understanding offered by qualitative research., qualitative empirical research. In this article, I first offer an overview of recent empirical research done by practical theologians and postgraduate students at the NWU. Then I focus on coding as an important part of data analysis during qualitative empirical research. I also present different approaches to data analysis in qualitative.

### What Are the Different Types of Quantitative Analysis Tools?

Tools for data collection and analysis. 3) Qualitative Data Collection Techniques Training Course in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Geneva 2012 Dr. Khalifa Elmusharaf MBBS, PGDip, FRSPH, PhD researcher Health System & Policy Data gathering in qualitative research . Van MaanenвЂ™s view of what research is . DonвЂ™t be a bull in a china shop вЂ“ prefigure your data collection . Analysis of qualitative data begins before it is collected. It starts with: 1. Framing and posing a research question or problem 2. Knowing the theoretical positions available on the topic Finding the blind spots, gaps and omissions in.

• Qualitative Data Analysis Research Design Service
• Data Types Mayo Clinic
• Tools for data collection and analysis
• Data Types Mayo Clinic

• Types of Research: There are varieties of ways through which we may classify it into different categories. (A) On the basis of nature of information: On the basis of nature of information we can classify the research into two types; (i) Qualitative Research: When information is in the form of qualitative data. qualitative empirical research. In this article, I first offer an overview of recent empirical research done by practical theologians and postgraduate students at the NWU. Then I focus on coding as an important part of data analysis during qualitative empirical research. I also present different approaches to data analysis in qualitative

research, the role of the researcher(s), the stages of research, and the method of data analysis. A qualitative research design is probably the most flexible of the various experimental techniques, encompassing a variety of accepted methods and structures. Here, four of the major qualitative research designs namely phenomenology, ethnography Coding is the essential step for data analysis in qualitative research. It is a process of narrowing qualitative data into a few themes or categories in order to efficiently make sense of the data

3) Qualitative Data Collection Techniques Training Course in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Geneva 2012 Dr. Khalifa Elmusharaf MBBS, PGDip, FRSPH, PhD researcher Health System & Policy Coding is the essential step for data analysis in qualitative research. It is a process of narrowing qualitative data into a few themes or categories in order to efficiently make sense of the data

the audience for the research. Although some research may incorporate both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, in their вЂpureвЂ™ form there are significant differences in the assumptions underlying these approaches, as well as in the data collection and analysis procedures used. Quantitative Methods Qualitative research is a scientific method of observation to gather non-numerical data. This type of research "refers to the meanings, concepts, definitions, characteristics, metaphors, symbols, and description of things" and not to their "counts or measures".

Data analysis and research in qualitative data work a little differently than the numerical data as the quality data is made up of words, descriptions, images, objects, and sometimes symbols. Getting insight from such complicated information is a complicated process, hence is typically used for exploratory research and data analysis. How to analyze qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative or quantitative data by itself canвЂ™t prove or demonstrate anything, but has to be analyzed to show its meaning in relation to the research questions. The method of analysis differs for each type of data. Analyzing quantitative data. Quantitative data is based on numbers. Simple

can be given to either data type or they can be considered equally. Allows researchers to expand an understanding from one method to another or converge or confirm findings. Researcher is draw on breadth of generalization offered by quantitative research with depth of detailed understanding offered by qualitative research. Data Types . By Tanya Hoskin, a statistician in the Mayo Clinic Department of Health Sciences Research who provides consultations through the Mayo Clinic CTSA BERD Resource.

Data analysis and research in qualitative data work a little differently than the numerical data as the quality data is made up of words, descriptions, images, objects, and sometimes symbols. Getting insight from such complicated information is a complicated process, hence is typically used for exploratory research and data analysis. Unquestionably, data analysis is the most complex and mysteriвЂє ous of all of the phases of a qualitative project, and the one that receives the least thoughtful discussion in the literature.

Qualitative research is an open-ended methodology that can be adapted while you are doing the research. That is why it increases the quality of the data and improves the understanding that you want to receive. There are many different types of qualitative research methods and many of these are under constant improvement to meet the researcher needs better. Qualitative Data Analysis Methods And Techniques. There are a wide variety of qualitative data analysis methods and techniques and the most popular and best known of them are: 1. Grounded Theory Analysis. The grounded analysis is a method and approach that involves generating a theory through the collection and analysis of data. That theory explains how an event or aspect of the social world вЂњworksвЂќ.

05/10/2019В В· Different types of quantitative analysis tools include graphs, linear regressions and hypothesis testing. These tools provide analysts with statistical methods of organizing and examining data. These tools are useful for analyzing survey results, historical data or financial numbers. They can also be used for forecasting or determining the Data Analysis as Data Reduction Management goal is to make large amount of data manageable Analysis goals: Search for commonalities, which lead to categories (know as codes or themes) Search for contrasts/comparisons There is Physical reduction of data (putting names on excerpts as if you are creating labels in a filing

I will discuss some of the different types of qualitative data analysis before focusing on computer pro-grams for qualitative data analysis; you will see that these increasingly popular programs are blurring the distinctions between quantitative and qualitative approaches to textual analysis. 22 Features of Qualitative Data Analysis The distinctive features of qualitative data collection This chapter introduces quantitative research methods in applied linguistics research, and discusses issues involved in quantitative data analysis, methodological assumptions underlying

can be given to either data type or they can be considered equally. Allows researchers to expand an understanding from one method to another or converge or confirm findings. Researcher is draw on breadth of generalization offered by quantitative research with depth of detailed understanding offered by qualitative research. Qualitative research is a scientific method of observation to gather non-numerical data. This type of research "refers to the meanings, concepts, definitions, characteristics, metaphors, symbols, and description of things" and not to their "counts or measures".

## Tools for data collection and analysis

Data analysis in research Why data types of data data. qualitative empirical research. In this article, I first offer an overview of recent empirical research done by practical theologians and postgraduate students at the NWU. Then I focus on coding as an important part of data analysis during qualitative empirical research. I also present different approaches to data analysis in qualitative, 5.2 Which data analysis for which data types? Popular bi-variate analysis Popular multi-variate anaylsis Dependant variable Y Quantitative (interval) Qualitative (nominal or ordinal) Independent (explaining) variable X Quantitative Correlation and Regression Transform X into a qualitative variable and see below Qualitative Analysis of variance.

### 6 Types of Qualitative Research Methods A Quick Guide

Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and. Data analysis is how researchers go from a mass of data to meaningful insights. There are many different data analysis methods, depending on the type of research. Here are a few methods you can use to analyze quantitative and qualitative data. ItвЂ™s difficult to analyze bad data., What qualifies them to address the aims of the study?). While systematic sampling may be associated with a post-positivist tradition of qualitative data collection and analysis, such sampling is not inherently limited to such analyses and the need for such sampling is not inherently limited to post-positivist qualitative approaches (Patton, 2002)..

qualitative empirical research. In this article, I first offer an overview of recent empirical research done by practical theologians and postgraduate students at the NWU. Then I focus on coding as an important part of data analysis during qualitative empirical research. I also present different approaches to data analysis in qualitative Fundamentally different research types like qualitative vs quantitative data analysis have always been positioned as opposing ways of collecting and processing the data, yet they share the same objectives of the investigation, they overlap in the numerous spheres and only with the help of both the most full and comprehensive data can be generated. . For some researchers it became a good tone

perspective of qualitative research. 3. Data collection. is one of the most thoroughly established aspects of quantita-tive research. While these strategies may emerge during a qualitative study, they must be well developed prior to beginning a quantitative research study. Furthermore, in Data analysis and research in qualitative data work a little differently than the numerical data as the quality data is made up of words, descriptions, images, objects, and sometimes symbols. Getting insight from such complicated information is a complicated process, hence is typically used for exploratory research and data analysis.

dichotomous positioning of qualitative research with respect to its quantitative coun - terpart. It allows for the inclusion of many different kinds of data collection and analysis techniques, as well as the diversity of theoretical and epistemological frame-works that are associated with qualitative research. Qualitative Data Types DATA ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT. If, as suggested earlier, doing qualitative research is about putting oneself in another personвЂ™s shoes and seeing the world from that personвЂ™s perspective, the most important part of data analysis and management is to be true to the participants.

dichotomous positioning of qualitative research with respect to its quantitative coun - terpart. It allows for the inclusion of many different kinds of data collection and analysis techniques, as well as the diversity of theoretical and epistemological frame-works that are associated with qualitative research. Qualitative Data Types Chapter 1: Basic Concepts in Research and Data Analysis 3 with this material before proceeding to the subsequent chapters, as most of the terms introduced here вЂ¦

Qualitative research is a scientific method of observation to gather non-numerical data. This type of research "refers to the meanings, concepts, definitions, characteristics, metaphors, symbols, and description of things" and not to their "counts or measures". Fundamentally different research types like qualitative vs quantitative data analysis have always been positioned as opposing ways of collecting and processing the data, yet they share the same objectives of the investigation, they overlap in the numerous spheres and only with the help of both the most full and comprehensive data can be generated. . For some researchers it became a good tone

Coding is the essential step for data analysis in qualitative research. It is a process of narrowing qualitative data into a few themes or categories in order to efficiently make sense of the data perspective of qualitative research. 3. Data collection. is one of the most thoroughly established aspects of quantita-tive research. While these strategies may emerge during a qualitative study, they must be well developed prior to beginning a quantitative research study. Furthermore, in

Coding is the essential step for data analysis in qualitative research. It is a process of narrowing qualitative data into a few themes or categories in order to efficiently make sense of the data Form of Data Collected Qualitative data such as open- ended responses, interviews, participant observations, field notes, & reflections. Quantitative data based on precise measurements using structured & validated data-collection instruments. Type of Data Analysis Identify patterns, features, themes. Identify statistical relationships.

perspective of qualitative research. 3. Data collection. is one of the most thoroughly established aspects of quantita-tive research. While these strategies may emerge during a qualitative study, they must be well developed prior to beginning a quantitative research study. Furthermore, in the audience for the research. Although some research may incorporate both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, in their вЂpureвЂ™ form there are significant differences in the assumptions underlying these approaches, as well as in the data collection and analysis procedures used. Quantitative Methods

The NIHR RDS for the East Midlands / Yorkshire & the Humber 2009 QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS 6 2.1 What do we mean by analysis? Quantitative research techniques generate a mass of numbers that need to be summarised, described and analysed. 15 Methods of Data Analysis in Qualitative Research Compiled by Donald Ratcliff 1. Typology - a classification system, taken from patterns, themes, or other kinds of groups of data. (Patton pp. 393,398) John Lofland & Lyn Lofland Ideally, categories should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive if вЂ¦

5.2 Which data analysis for which data types? Popular bi-variate analysis Popular multi-variate anaylsis Dependant variable Y Quantitative (interval) Qualitative (nominal or ordinal) Independent (explaining) variable X Quantitative Correlation and Regression Transform X into a qualitative variable and see below Qualitative Analysis of variance I will discuss some of the different types of qualitative data analysis before focusing on computer pro-grams for qualitative data analysis; you will see that these increasingly popular programs are blurring the distinctions between quantitative and qualitative approaches to textual analysis. 22 Features of Qualitative Data Analysis The distinctive features of qualitative data collection

Ratio data вЂ“ interval data that has a true zero (ie. absolute pressure of 200kPa is twice as great as 100kPa) Categorical variables are qualitative data, not quantitative, even though they may be labelled as numbers. Categorical variables are made up of categories identify seperate entities (e.g. gender, colours, etc) DATA COLLECTION How to analyze qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative or quantitative data by itself canвЂ™t prove or demonstrate anything, but has to be analyzed to show its meaning in relation to the research questions. The method of analysis differs for each type of data. Analyzing quantitative data. Quantitative data is based on numbers. Simple

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK. I will discuss some of the different types of qualitative data analysis before focusing on computer pro-grams for qualitative data analysis; you will see that these increasingly popular programs are blurring the distinctions between quantitative and qualitative approaches to textual analysis. 22 Features of Qualitative Data Analysis The distinctive features of qualitative data collection, 3) Qualitative Data Collection Techniques Training Course in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Geneva 2012 Dr. Khalifa Elmusharaf MBBS, PGDip, FRSPH, PhD researcher Health System & Policy.

### Qualitative data collection techniques

Qualitative research Wikipedia. Qualitative research is an open-ended methodology that can be adapted while you are doing the research. That is why it increases the quality of the data and improves the understanding that you want to receive. There are many different types of qualitative research methods and many of these are under constant improvement to meet the researcher needs better., What qualifies them to address the aims of the study?). While systematic sampling may be associated with a post-positivist tradition of qualitative data collection and analysis, such sampling is not inherently limited to such analyses and the need for such sampling is not inherently limited to post-positivist qualitative approaches (Patton, 2002)..

### Qualitative Data Analysis Research Design Service

Qualitative research Wikipedia. research, the role of the researcher(s), the stages of research, and the method of data analysis. A qualitative research design is probably the most flexible of the various experimental techniques, encompassing a variety of accepted methods and structures. Here, four of the major qualitative research designs namely phenomenology, ethnography qualitative empirical research. In this article, I first offer an overview of recent empirical research done by practical theologians and postgraduate students at the NWU. Then I focus on coding as an important part of data analysis during qualitative empirical research. I also present different approaches to data analysis in qualitative.

Coding is the essential step for data analysis in qualitative research. It is a process of narrowing qualitative data into a few themes or categories in order to efficiently make sense of the data 15 Methods of Data Analysis in Qualitative Research Compiled by Donald Ratcliff 1. Typology - a classification system, taken from patterns, themes, or other kinds of groups of data. (Patton pp. 393,398) John Lofland & Lyn Lofland Ideally, categories should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive if вЂ¦

Fundamentally different research types like qualitative vs quantitative data analysis have always been positioned as opposing ways of collecting and processing the data, yet they share the same objectives of the investigation, they overlap in the numerous spheres and only with the help of both the most full and comprehensive data can be generated. . For some researchers it became a good tone Qualitative research is an open-ended methodology that can be adapted while you are doing the research. That is why it increases the quality of the data and improves the understanding that you want to receive. There are many different types of qualitative research methods and many of these are under constant improvement to meet the researcher needs better.

05/10/2019В В· Different types of quantitative analysis tools include graphs, linear regressions and hypothesis testing. These tools provide analysts with statistical methods of organizing and examining data. These tools are useful for analyzing survey results, historical data or financial numbers. They can also be used for forecasting or determining the The NIHR RDS for the East Midlands / Yorkshire & the Humber 2009 QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS 6 2.1 What do we mean by analysis? Quantitative research techniques generate a mass of numbers that need to be summarised, described and analysed.

The NIHR RDS for the East Midlands / Yorkshire & the Humber 2009 QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS 6 2.1 What do we mean by analysis? Quantitative research techniques generate a mass of numbers that need to be summarised, described and analysed. Ratio data вЂ“ interval data that has a true zero (ie. absolute pressure of 200kPa is twice as great as 100kPa) Categorical variables are qualitative data, not quantitative, even though they may be labelled as numbers. Categorical variables are made up of categories identify seperate entities (e.g. gender, colours, etc) DATA COLLECTION

Chapter 1: Basic Concepts in Research and Data Analysis 3 with this material before proceeding to the subsequent chapters, as most of the terms introduced here вЂ¦ These categories can be qualitative or quantitative values. 3 2 Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics are often used to describe variables. Descriptive statis-tics are performed by analyzing one variable at a time (univariate analysis). All researchers perform these descriptive statistics before beginning any type of data analysis.

qualitative empirical research. In this article, I first offer an overview of recent empirical research done by practical theologians and postgraduate students at the NWU. Then I focus on coding as an important part of data analysis during qualitative empirical research. I also present different approaches to data analysis in qualitative Qualitative Research Methods: A Data CollectorвЂ™s Field Guide Module 1 Qualitative Research Methods Overview FAMILY HEALTH INTERNATIONAL OVERVIEW. Qualitative Research Methods Overview T his module introduces the fundamental elements of a qualitative approach to research, to help you understand and become proficient in the qualitative methods discussed in subse-quent modules. We вЂ¦

can be given to either data type or they can be considered equally. Allows researchers to expand an understanding from one method to another or converge or confirm findings. Researcher is draw on breadth of generalization offered by quantitative research with depth of detailed understanding offered by qualitative research. 05/10/2019В В· Different types of quantitative analysis tools include graphs, linear regressions and hypothesis testing. These tools provide analysts with statistical methods of organizing and examining data. These tools are useful for analyzing survey results, historical data or financial numbers. They can also be used for forecasting or determining the

This chapter introduces quantitative research methods in applied linguistics research, and discusses issues involved in quantitative data analysis, methodological assumptions underlying the audience for the research. Although some research may incorporate both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, in their вЂpureвЂ™ form there are significant differences in the assumptions underlying these approaches, as well as in the data collection and analysis procedures used. Quantitative Methods

Types of Research: There are varieties of ways through which we may classify it into different categories. (A) On the basis of nature of information: On the basis of nature of information we can classify the research into two types; (i) Qualitative Research: When information is in the form of qualitative data. Form of Data Collected Qualitative data such as open- ended responses, interviews, participant observations, field notes, & reflections. Quantitative data based on precise measurements using structured & validated data-collection instruments. Type of Data Analysis Identify patterns, features, themes. Identify statistical relationships.

Types of Research: There are varieties of ways through which we may classify it into different categories. (A) On the basis of nature of information: On the basis of nature of information we can classify the research into two types; (i) Qualitative Research: When information is in the form of qualitative data. Ratio data вЂ“ interval data that has a true zero (ie. absolute pressure of 200kPa is twice as great as 100kPa) Categorical variables are qualitative data, not quantitative, even though they may be labelled as numbers. Categorical variables are made up of categories identify seperate entities (e.g. gender, colours, etc) DATA COLLECTION

Coding is the essential step for data analysis in qualitative research. It is a process of narrowing qualitative data into a few themes or categories in order to efficiently make sense of the data research, the role of the researcher(s), the stages of research, and the method of data analysis. A qualitative research design is probably the most flexible of the various experimental techniques, encompassing a variety of accepted methods and structures. Here, four of the major qualitative research designs namely phenomenology, ethnography